Posted: Wed Jul 30, 2014 9:57 am
Post subject: "Austrian talk" by M. Czuma and L.Mazan
"Austriackie gadanie" (Austrian talk) by Mieczysław Czuma and Leszek Mazan is on my bookshelf since a really long time. This is just brilliant book, fun, full of interesting stories and explainig a lot of regional, cultural differences (sometimes very subtile and elusive) between people living in the former area of Galicia and the rest of Poland.
Sometimes it is about stereotypes, sometimes about the language differences but always there is some interesting story in the background...
The book is written in the form of an encyclopedia, with different words and expressions in the alphabetical order.
I would love to share with you some parts of this book. I will try to translate some articles and publish it here from time to time.
I hope that you will like it and this will be usefull especially for our future guests on PO Galicia Tour.
To begin with:
Fajka - tobacco pipe
Smoking pipe and cigars was popular in Galicia since the beginning of the 19th century. The guild of the wooden pipe artisans existed in Brzozów near Krosno in 18th century. Nisko and Sanok were famous for the clay pipes production.
The most famous pipes in Austro-Hungarian Empire were being produced in Przemyśl, in manufacture of Wincenty Swoboda (Czech). He learned the art of pipe making in Vienna. In Przemyśl he perfectionned it, together with his wife: Maria, nee Ochalik.
He was making the smoking utensils from the Turkish cherry wood, coconut , birch from Sweden, ivory, amber, horn and galalith.
In Podhale region, men smoke pipes from pine wood, with the brass head with the lid. They used to light the pipes from the church altar lamp and smoking during the mass or prayers. This inappropriate custom has been defeated by the rector from Zakopane parich: father Stolarczyk, however still, they used to smoke in the church vestibule.
I translated another short article from the book "Austriackie gadanie":
This was the medieval tradition to organize the markets several times per year in different towns, on the occasion of some regular religious holidays. This tradition in Austo-Hungarian Empire was most cherished in its North-Western part: Galicia.
19th century markets were the occssion to finalize carefully planed transactions, but also a get-together, exchange of views and opinions, long awaited entertainment and fun. Galician towns from Chrzanów to Trembowla had its local specialization. The best horse markets were in Biała, Tarnopol and Kleparz (part of Kraków, this market still exists, without horses nowadays, but it is still worth seeing. See the article on PolishOrigins blog: http://blog.polishorigins.com/2013/07/10/old-kleparz-market-in-krakow/).
The cattle was the most popular merchandise in Debica, Brzozów and Kołomyja. The capital of poultry was is Rzeszów. Sheep and wool ruled on the market in Delatyn.
There was plenty of one-day markets, but counted only those which lasted longer: In Strzyżów, Brzeżany and Halicz the markets lasted 3 days. In Bochnia, Gorlice, Stanisławów: 5 days. The stalls were open for 8 days in Jarosław, Stryj and Kałusz. The two weeks markets were organised in Przemyśl, Chodorów, Kraków and Lwów. The loudest market - in Ulaszowice in Podole region - lasted from 24 June till 10 July. They traded cattle, horses, pigs, poultry, farm tools, corn, shoes, clothes. The land owners from whole Galicia, Podole, Bucovina came with their families. The most crowded were 6 and 7 July, when was the St. Agrypina’s Day and the holiday od the Birth of St. John Baptist.
Chocolate with cocoa and peanut filling, produced since 1913, with an unchanged recipe and packing. It was produced by the Kraków’s confectionery company founded by Adam Piasecki in 1910 (currently it is named Wawel). Accordingly to the company’s traditions: Piasecki was an invalid with the soft heart. He fell in love in the beautiful female worker: Danusia, and that is where the name of this famous and popular chocolate came from.
In Krakow, in Jagiellonian University Museum there is the oldest Polish chockolate bar with the coat of arms of Poland, Lithuania and Poniatowski family, topped by a crown and the Order of Saint Stanislaus. This chocolate was made by the court confectioner Jan Rychter, accompanying the king Stanisław August Poniatowski during his visit in kraków in June 1787.
Why it has not been eaten during the ball on 21st June 1787? We do not know.
Taste "Danusia" when you will be in Poland! It is still very popular (especially in Kraków) and delicious!
Today I will continue with the very important personnage in Austro-Hungarian (and Galician) history:
Franz Joseph I of Austria (18 August 1830, 11 a.m. - 21 November 1916, 9 p.m.)
He was his own subject, the great-great grandson of the Empress Elisabeth, great grandson of the emperor Leopold II, grandson of the Emperor Franz II, son of the archduke Franz, first gentleman of Europe, educated as the bookbinder. After the abdication of his uncle Ferdinand I of Austria, since 8 a.m. on 2 February 1848 Franz Joseph was titled as: "His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, Apostolic King of Jerusalem, Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Bohemia, King of Lombardy and Venice, of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia, Lodomeria and Illyria; Archduke of Austria; Grand Duke of Tuscany and Cracow, Duke of Lorraine, of Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and of the Bukovina; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Modena, Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, of Auschwitz, Zator and Teschen,etc..."
He called himself as “the first civil servant”(...) He was the longest reigning monarch in Europe! We are used to saying that grace to Franz Joseph the beautiful 19th century lasted 16 years longer… just till his death in 1916.
When he was 3 days old he received nine people court for his own disposal. By order of the emperor, little Franz Joseph was using for his walks only the carriage drawn by six horses. When he was six he started his intensive education under the tutelage of his mother: at the beginning 20 , later 50 hours per week. He spoke German, French, Italian, Czech, Hungarian and sometimes Polish (depending on the political atmosphere). He was taught dancing, fencing and horse riding. When he was 13, he was appointed colonel of dragoons (...).
In 1848 he was sent for the short vacations to Lombardia. Instead of the rest he participated in the victorious war campaign in Italy, under the command of Field Marshal Radetzky. Under the influence of the battle emotions his tobacco addiction begun. On 2 February 1848 he took the throne after his mentally sluggish uncle Ferdinand.
A couple of days later he hunted his first hare (in the next 60 years he hunted 50 600 wild animals, and later, until his death another 4400, his annual average was 850). In 1854 he married his mothers’ niece: Elisabeth Wittelsbach (Sissi). In 1859 he took personal command of the 250 thousands army (against the Habsburg fammily tradition) and he lost the Italian campaign in the battle of Solferino. The beginnings of his baldness.
(...) In 1867 he confirmed the autonomy of Galicia(...) he supported also the greater and more meaningful participation of the Galician politicians in the Governement of the Austro-Hungary.
(...) Franz Josephs I was known for his deep animosity towards technical innovations (except the water closet - but only after the several years of use). He hated: cars, lifts, electric fans, telephone, typewriter, camouflage uniforms. He died of pneumonia in Shonbrunn Palace. He is burried in the Imperial Catacombs of the Capuchin church in Vienna.
Translation from: "Austriackie gadanie" by Mieczysław Czuma and Leszek Mazan
Today's short translation from "Austriackie gadanie" ("Austrian talk") is referring to last week's article about the emperor Franz Joseph:
His Majesty Emperor of Austria and Apostolic King of Hungary held audiences on each Monday and Thursday between 10 a.m. and 1 p.m. Written applications were received in the Imperial-Royal office Hofburg 1 im Schweizerfof on Fridays (for Monday audiences) and on Mondays (for Thursday audiences). The custom of regular audiences was adopted by Franz Josef from his distinguish grandfather Franz the 1st.
Till the end of his life he took 100 thousands visits (other sources are giving 150 thousands). Application could be submitted by anyone. Senior officials and military had one audience per year guaranteed. The Galicia citizens were using audiences for their most abject thanks (for receiving promotion, order or the title) and to assure the emperor in their loyalty.
Military and officials were obliged to wear their gala uniform, civilians: full dress, high-hat or the national costume (this rule was being used often by Polish and Hungarian citizens). For women: dark or grey dress, obligatory white gloves and a hand fan. Women’s hat must have been small and without any extravagant decoration. As for the peasants the traditional, regional clothes were tolerated. The personal command of the Emperor was to refund peasants the costs of the return ticket (people from Galicia were often travelling to Vienna on foot to save money).
The emperor in his uniform of the colonel of infantry was holding the audiences standing next to the small, oval table. He never shook hands (with some exceptions of the noble people). The attempts of prostrating or raining on someone’s knees were not tolerated (“No one will rain on his knees in front of me”). After the obligatory courtesy and words: “Your Majesty…”, the emperor’s gaze signalized that the matter can be referred. The monarch was taking petitions from the hands of his subjects with the words: “I shall read and examine”. Predominantly these were his only words. Whole audience lasted for 2 to 5 minutes. When the emperor slightly bowed his head or tuned to the window the meeting was over. The supplicant went out back in deep bow (unless he had not fainted from with excitement earlier, which was very badly seen). Meanwhile the emperor deigned to write on the petition uppercase F, which meant: “get positively and quickly done” or small letter ”f”, meaning: “get done if possible”. The lack of His Majesty’s signature meant that the case can be left to its own course, so it can be just indefinitely postponed.
During both individual and collective audiences, supplicants were allowed only to answer the emperor’s questions (similar rules are still applied during the pope’s audiences). Monarch was never speaking to the whole gathering, he was always directing his words to the individuals.
Translation from: "Austriackie gadanie" by Mieczysław Czuma and Leszek Mazan
Today will be very short, however still interesting (especially for those of you who are passionate genealogists) translation from my book "Austriackie gadanie".
Here is the first text from the book:
First surname on the alphabetical order list of the citizens of Galicia and Lodomeria. Aabs came from Sweden (and this fact is explaining the Swedish pronunciation) in 17th century, during the so called Deluge. Currently this surname is the most popular in Przemyśl (19) and in Kraków (6).
From: Austriackie gadanie (Austrian talk) by Mieczysław Czuma and Leszek Mazan
After some longer break, I prepared another short text for you:
Biber (from Polish: bóbr, in English: beaver)
Social game, mostly popular among Galician kids. It consisted spotting and “counting” people with beards. Almost all men wore beards, with the exception of priests, members of some male religious congregations and actors. Only the man with the exceptional beard could be considered as a “Biber”(large moustaches were counted double). The fact was that: “meeting the bearded individual, especially before breakfast, was the sign of good day. If it was possible to pull this beard, then the prosperity was certain” (citation from S. Broniewski).
Professor Michał Siedlecki from Kraków let the female students and schoolgirls hurrying to their exams, to pull his great beard for luck.
18-year old emperor Franz Joseph paused his throne speech when he saw the Galician delegation’s member, Franciszek Smolka. Accordngly to some historical sources Smolka’s huge beard was considered as anti-Habsburg manifestation. In 1852 the emperor issued a decree prohibiting beards to all Galician officials (moustaches were allowed). Beard was associated with excessive liberalism, democracy and progress.
Exceptionally long beards and moustaches, excellent for biber game, were worn by the fire-mans. During the fire fighting they were covering their noses and mouth with their beards what was supposed to filter the smoky air.
Translated from: "Austriackie gadanie" ("Austrian talk") by M. Czuma and L. Mazan
Another interesting short article that I found in the book "Austriackie gadanie" and translated for you.
This time it is about "the Rockefeller of The Central Europe"...
(1876-1932) Czech, the progenitor of the Czech family of famous shoes producers. He owned a hundred factories and 6 thousands of shoe magazines. At the beginning he operated only in Austro-Hungarian Empire (in Lwów, Kraków, Tarnów, Nowy Sącz), later also in 90 different countries of the world.
He was called the Rockefeller of The Central Europe. He is also the inventor of common pricing method, so called “Bata price”, for example: 799 Korons instead of 800.
He started his business from the slippers trading. Since 1894 he owned the shoe factory in Zlin in Czech Moravia. He was pioneer in using the automobiles is a cheap means of transport. From Ford’s factory he borrowed the method of the production line. From Lyne, Massachussets he brought to Europe the new idea of the mass production of women’s and children’s shoes using the shoe lasts for left and right foot. This method helped to produce the much cheaper but solid shoes.
During the 1st World War 50 percent of soldiers fought and died in Bata’s shoes. Work in Bata’s factories was low-paid but in the years 1914-1918 it was desired because it was the shelter from being sent to the front.
Bata never, ever, in the slightest degree, regardless of the enormous costs, agreed for any demands of the striking workers (first protests broke out in 1906). He used to saying: “No one will ever be telling me how much to whom I give to eat. I am honest, I believe in God and no one who is honest and hard working will be hurt.”
In 1903 he disrobed himself as a “collectivist with the communist inclination” and claimed that “the very thought of capitalism makes him retching”. In his factories he did not tolerate the alcohol and workers’ unions. He demanded the absolute discipline, saving and respect for work. The workers could only have savings in Bata’s savings’ banks, they could only buy in Bata’s shops, live in the housing estates built by the company. He even angaged his HR departments in marriages planning.
His son: Tomasz the second , passed his high school diploma in Switzerland, but the shoemaker's apprentice exam he approached three times.
When Tomasz Bata had been once accused by the press of bankruptcy and suicide, he ordered to distribute below posters in all major cities:
I AM NOT RICH
I AM NOT POOR
I AM NOT BANKRUPT
I PAY ALL TAXES HONESTLY
I MAKE GOOD SHOES
PLEASE CHECK TO SEE
Translated from: "Austriackie gadanie" ("Austrian talk") by M. Czuma and L. Mazan
Henryk PO Top Contributor
Joined: 05 Dec 2008 Replies: 313 Location: London ON, Canada
Thomasz the Second emigrated to Canada in 1939, after the takeover of Czecho-Slovakia. With the confiscation of his company in the Communist world, he formed a international company in Canada. He subsequently regained the lost parts of his company.
Henryk, Aga, I remember Bata shoe stores when I was young. There's a Bata Shoe Museum in Toronto; I haven't visited it yet but my daughter and granddaughter did a few years ago and had fun, said it was interesting.
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